That it has progressed to this dangerous point is testament to the power of a nationalist narrative. It has unfolded so naturally, older people worried, that the young did not fully understand the risk that they were taking.
âYou see how it is going to end,â said Mr. Juanicoâs mother, Serafina SabatÃ©, who is 89.
She said it sharply: Under the fascist government of Francisco Franco, her father was imprisoned for six years for producing fabric for the republican army. She asked her grandson, who was elated about the vote, what he would do if the government sent tanks.
âLook, we have lived through a war,â Ms. SabatÃ© said, her voice shaking. âIf people go to the street, if someone does something against the state, they will jump on him. Anyone who has lived through the war wants these days to pass by.â
The city of Terrassa, an old textile manufacturing center just outside Barcelona, seemed preternaturally calm last week, the sidewalk cafes full and a yearly theater festival underway. Under the surface, however, there was the sense of an approaching collision â a collision that was days away, and then hours.
The mayor had mostly disappeared from public view, explaining in a Facebook post that he had come under a torrent of abuse when he had tried to remain neutral on the vote. Elementary-school principals had received letters warning them they might face sedition charges if they opened their doors for voting. Teenage activists â joyful, full of expectation â talked about blocking security forces with their bodies.
âWe have been waiting for this moment for 300 years,â said Guillem Carbonell Vidal, 18, who is studying to be a theater technician. He was excited, and also sleep-deprived, having spent the last week running from one political meeting to another, debating such matters as whether to print a new currency and nationalize the banks.