Sugar addition in diet and its effect on appetite, fat breakdown and energy metabolism

Studies have shown that diet plays a vital role in maintaining a healthy body weight and also to prevent obesity. The composition of diet is with macro and micronutrients. The macronutrients are carbohydrates or sugars and complex sugars, proteins and fats.

Image Credit: Marcos Mesa Sam Wordley

In a new study, researchers from the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Grand Forks Human Nutrition Center decided to study the effects of adding a small serving of a sugar-sweetened beverage to meals. They then analysed the effects this had on appetite, emerge metabolism and utilization and also oxidation of substrate (break down of the carbohydrates into smaller glucose particles for usage of the body for energy).

For the study the researchers recruited 27 adults who had an average age of 25 years and a Body mass index of 23 kg/m2.

The participants were offered either a sugar sweetened beverage or a non-nutritive-sweetened beverage along with a standard (15%E) or high- (30%E) protein meal. For both the groups meal carbohydrate contents were adjusted so that the participants received equivalent calories.

Same foods were used for all meals. So a total of 17g of fat and 500 calories that did not come from the beverages. Special room calorimeters were used for measurements.

The study visits were separated by at least 1 week. Menstruating women in the study were studied during the luteal phase (Days 15–20 of the monthly cycle).

Thus to simplify, the participants were studied for two 24 hour periods one week apart. They were given protein based meals with sugared drinks in the first experiment. They were given protein based meals along with non-sugary drinks.

Statistical analysis of the other factors sex, level of protein intake, type of beverage offered and its effects on appetite, satiety, taste profiles etc. were made. In addition diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and rates of substrate oxidation was also seen. DIT…

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